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Lee J. Cobb


Lee J. Cobb was an American actor. He is best known for his performance in 12 Angry Men , his Academy Award-nominated performance in On the Waterfront , and one of his last films, The Exorcist . He also played the role of Willy Loman in the original Broadway production of Arthur Miller’s 1949 play Death of a Salesman under the direction of Elia Kazan. On television, Cobb costarred in the first four seasons of the popular, long-running western series The Virginian. He typically played arrogant, intimidating, and abrasive characters, but often had roles as respectable figures such as judges.


Born Leo Jacob in New York City, to a Jewish family of Russian and Romanian extraction. He grew up in The Bronx, New York, on Wilkins Avenue, near Crotona Park. His parents were Benjamin (Benzion) Jacob, a compositor for a foreign-language newspaper, and Kate (Neilecht). Cobb studied at New York University before making his film debut in The Vanishing Shadow (1934). He joined the Manhattan-based Group Theatre in 1935.


Cobb did summer stock at Pine Brook Country Club located in the countryside of Nichols, Connecticut, in the 1930s and early 1940s. Pine Brook was the summer home of the Group Theatre (New York) from 1931 until the 1940s. During World War II Cobb served in the First Motion Picture Unit of the Army Air Force.

Cobb entered films in the 1930s, successfully playing middle-aged and even older men while he was still a youth. He was cast as the Kralahome in the 1946 non-musical film Anna and the King of Siam. He also played the sympathetic doctor in The Song of Bernadette and appeared as James Coburn’s supervisor in the spy spoofs In Like Flint and Our Man Flint. He reprised his role of Willy Loman in the 1966 CBS television adaptation of Death of a Salesman, which included Gene Wilder, James Farentino, Bernie Kopell and George Segal. Cobb was nominated for an Emmy Award for the performance. Mildred Dunnock, who had co-starred in both the original stage version and the 1951 film version, again repeated her role as Linda, Willy’s devoted wife.

In 1957 he appeared in Sidney Lumet’s 12 Angry Men as the abrasive Juror #3. In 1959, on CBS’ DuPont Show of the Month, he starred in the dual roles of Miguel de Cervantes and Don Quixote in the play I, Don Quixote, which years later became the musical Man of La Mancha. Cobb also appeared as Wyoming ranch owner Judge Henry Garth in the first four seasons of the long-running NBC western television series The Virginian. His co-stars were James Drury, Doug McClure, Roberta Shore, Gary Clarke, Randy Boone, Clu Gulager and Diane Roter.

In 1968 his performance as King Lear with Stacy Keach as Edmund, René Auberjonois as the Fool and Philip Bosco as Kent achieved the longest run (72 performances) for the play in Broadway history.

One of his final film roles was that of police detective Lt. Kinderman in the 1973 horror film The Exorcist.

Political activity

Cobb was accused of being a Communist in 1951 testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee by Larry Parks, himself a former Communist Party member. Cobb was called to testify before HUAC but refused to do so for two years until, with his career threatened by the blacklist, he relented in 1953 and gave testimony in which he named 20 people as former members of the Communist Party USA.

Later, Cobb explained why he “named names”, saying:

Following the hearing he resumed his career and worked with Elia Kazan and Budd Schulberg, two other HUAC “friendly witnesses”, on the 1954 film On the Waterfront, which is widely seen as an allegory and apologia for testifying.


Cobb died of a heart attack in February 1976 in Woodland Hills, California, and was buried in Mount Sinai Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles. He was survived by his second wife, Mary Hirsch. His death came the day before his Exodus (1960) co-star Sal Mineo was murdered.

He was inducted, posthumously, into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 1981.

Lee J. Cobb’s wife from 1940 to 1950s was Yiddish-theater and film actress Helen Beverley (1916—2011), daughter — Julie Cobb.

Selected Broadway credits

Crime and Punishment (1935)

Waiting for Lefty (1935)

Johnny Johnson (1936)

Golden Boy (1937)

Death of a Salesman (1949)

King Lear (1968)


The Vanishing Shadow (1934)

North of the Rio Grande (1937)

Rustlers’ Valley (1937)

Ali Baba Goes to Town (1937)

Danger on the Air (1938)

The Phantom Creeps (1939)

Golden Boy (1939)

This Thing Called Love (1940)

Men of Boys Town (1941)

Paris Calling (1941)

Down Rio Grande Way (1942)

The Moon Is Down (1943)

Tonight We Raid Calais (1943)

Buckskin Frontier (1943)

The Song of Bernadette (1943)

Winged Victory (1944)

Anna and the King of Siam (1946)

Johnny O’Clock (1947)

Boomerang! (1947)

Captain from Castile (1947)

Call Northside 777 (1948)

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Trailer: The Story Of The Jews – Simon Schama


CNN’s Christiane Amanpour speaks with historian Simon Schama about his latest project, The Story of the Jews. Trailer BBC-serie The Story of the Jews met Simon Schama. Meer informatie op . Vanaf oktober 2013 te koop op dvd in Nederland en Belgie. Beschr… The BBC is just one of many major content producers here in Cannes trying to sell their programmes to new markets. One show they have had no problem in selli… British historian Simon Schama (at the time of the interview a Harvard, now a Columbia University professor), writer and presenter of the 15-part BBC documen… – See more Chicago Humanities Festival events. World-renowned historian and cultural critic Simon Schama is best known as the dr… BBC Worldwide Showcase exports hit TV series to the rest of the world. Brand new history series The Story of the Jews is written and created by Simon Schama,… What about the African holocaust? Jon Culshaw performs a hilarious sketch in the style of great British historian Dr Simon Schama. Funny short from BBC comedy show ‘Dead Ringers’. This clip basically flies through history from the time of Moses to the Temple and stops at the time Jerusalem was besieged and the Jews exiled. emphasizing … Or anything really. Food for thought, whatever label, group, culture or philosophy you might apply it to or which you consider you belong to. The story of th… I made this for my history project, it took FOREVER to make. All movie scenes are from The 10 Commandments(1956) and Abraham(1993) A new documentary has arrived in American cinemas, which chronicles the longest uninterrupted underground survival in recorded human history. It tells the st… Stretching from the Dinosaur Age to the Present Day, Simon Schama’s Prehistoric does not pretend to be a definitive chronicle of the turbulent events which b… Where better to start our special report on the Jews of Belgium than here in the Diamond district of Antwerp. It was more than a hundred years ago that the J… This is the story of dealing with the Bolshevik revolution, escaping from the Russian army, and immigration to Israel Moshe Tchernichovski, 1895-1986 Recorde… In deze tweedelige serie betoogt de Britse historicus Simon Schama dat het onmogelijk te begrijpen is hoe Shakespeare ‘tijdloos’ is geworden, zonder te snapp… based on a true story. The head of Nazi Germany’s secret police force Heinrich Mueller was buried in a Jewish graveyard in Berlin, not far from where famous Jewish philosopher Mose… Jean-Marie Lustiger was born in France to Jewish parents, and following his conversion to Catholicism, he held the position of Cardinal of Paris for over twe… All these history trails are also available to use as an app from York Museums Trust. A journey through York… We’ve got this brand new act up in the mountains — this guy named Yoshi. Or ‘Shua. Just don’t call Him Josh…or Yeshu or anything like that. What the heck

This Day in Jewish History / The death of an Australian who set out Haaretz

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This Day, December 8, In Jewish History by MItchell A. LevinCleveland Jewish News (blog)

1522: David Reubeni left Khaibar today “and went to Nubia in northern Sudan, where he claimed to be a descendant of Muhammad. When he spoke to 
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This Day, December 8, In Jewish History by MItchell A. LevinCleveland Jewish News (blog)

When he spoke to audiences of Jews, he told of large Jewish kingdoms in the east, possibly referring to the Jewish community at Cochin. The Portuguese had 
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Afghan Jewish Cultures & traditions with Michael Choen


A book (Biography) was published about Afghan Jewish Cultures & traditions by Michael Cohen.
With Shabbat and holidays music, that we all want to listen to and read the book.
Which will bring back the old good memories?
This book will bring back childhood memories.

To order a copy of this book please visit:

the Yemenite Dances – Jewish Traditions of Yemen


This is a research movie on the the Jewish Yemenite Dances – Traditions of Yemen!
Its purpose is to spread the cultural heritage of the Yemenite Jewish community / we do not own several of the videos used in its creation ‘ if that offences anyone’s rights please tell us
It is hosted by Ben Zion and narrated in Russian.
Research, script and direction – Elian Valaji

סרט חדש על הרב עובדיה יוסף זצוק”ל מיוחד לפי סולם המידות

Alsufy Jewish Tribe of Yemen قبيلة السوفي اليهودية اليمنية


Alsufy Jewish tribe is the most ancient Jewish tribe in Yemen that has maintained its culture and faith for thousands of centuries despite major challenges it faced in this part of the world.
قبيلة السوفي اليهودية في جبال الربيعتين باليمن


סרט חתונה – יוסי שחר 0502528651

Lipa Schmeltzer saying Hoshana’s 2012

The Real Danger Facing the Jewish PeopleArutz Sheva

In a recent op-ed for Arutz Sheva, Moshe Kempinski warns of the creeping tide of Hellenism (non-Jewish practices and influence of a culture alien to Judaism) or 
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The doctor who traded books for healthcareHaaretz (blog)

It may well be that, only a few centuries from now, all of the great centers ofJewish culture will experience a similar fate … and then, in any case, the libraries 
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The New Center for Arts & Culture to Host Third Annual ‘Moo Shu Jew’Sampan

WHAT: For the third year in a row, The New Center for Arts & Culture will host The  Jewish family tradition of spending Christmas Eve in a Chinese restaurant!
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Discover Catalonia’s Jewish heritageCanadian Jewish News

What visitors sometimes don’t realize, however, is that it’s also a city with a rich and elaborate connection to Judaism and Jewish culture. Although today the city 
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Seminar to tackle dialogue between culturesBrazil-Arab News Agency (ANBA)

São Paulo – The seminar “Dialogue of Civilizations” will address the coexistence of different culturaltraditions, among them the Christian, Arab and Jewish ones 
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Elegance Beyond MeasureHeritage Florida Jewish News

The Jewish Pavilion partners with senior living facilities to bring Jewish culture and tradition to the residents. This past Chanukah, several facilities hosted some 
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December 6, 2013
The Ghost Shtetl of TrochenbrodOnce upon a time there was a shtetl named Trochenbrod. In its heyday, Trochenbrod, which is located in Western Ukraine just 30 kilometers northeast of the city of Lutsk, was home to approximately 5,000 Jews, with seven synagogues, and a rich farming culture. In typically frank Yiddish fashion, Trochenbrod means “bread without butter.”And then one day, Trochenbrod was wiped off the map. In 1942, the Nazis liquidated the shtetl, murdering all but 200 of its inhabitants.Today, Trochenbrod isn’t an easy find. It is so elusive, in fact, that Jonathan Safran Foer fictionalized his own journey to Trochenbrod in his debut novel Everything Is Illuminated.Now author Avrom Bendavid-Val is exploring the place, too—only this time there’s nothing fictional about it.Lost Town, a haunting new documentary, follows Bendavid-Val, whose late father emigrated from Trochenbrod years before the Holocaust, on his voyage to track down his ancestral homeland. On the heels of his 2010 book on the same subject, the film is a poignant journey into the past, bringing Bendavid-Val into contact not only with survivors of the shtetl, but with his own personal history as well.- Zachary Solomon
The Ghost Shtetl of Trochenbrod

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Select Section Jewish History : 24JEWISH ALERTS large selection in each section

Polish museum looks at Jewish history in Warsaw

Tel Aviv – a mural at the Jewish Agency for Israel building in honor of Tel Aviv’s 100th anniversary


Zahi Shaked A tour guide in Israel and his camera 9726905522 tel

סיור עם מורה הדרך ומדריך הטיולים צחי שקד 0546905522
My name is Zahi Shaked
In 2000 I became a registered liscenced tourist guide.
My dedication in life is to pass on the ancient history of the Holy Land.

Following upon many years of travel around the world, which was highlighted by a very exciting emotional and soul-searching meeting with the Dalai Lama, I realized that I had a mission. To pass on the the history of the Holy Land, its religions, and in particular, the birth and development of Christianity.

In order to fulfill this “calling” in the best way possible, I studied in depth, visited, and personally experienced each and every important site of the ancient Christians. I studied for and received my first bachelors degree in the ancient history of the Holy Land, and am presently completing my studies for my second degree.(Masters)

Parralel to my studies, and in order to earn a living, I was employed for many years in advertising. What I learned there was how to attract the publics attention, generate and, increase interest, and assimilate information. All this I use as tools to describe, explain and deepen the interest in the sites that we visit. From my experience, I have learned that in this way, the Holy Land becomes more than just history, and that the large stones that we see scattered about in dissaray, join together one by one until they become – a Byzantine Church. This also happens when I lead a group of Pilgrims in the Steps of Jesus. We climb to the peak of Mount Precipice, “glide” over the land to the Sea of Galilee, land on the water and “see” the miracle which enfolds before us. This is a many faceted experience. Not only history which you will remember and cherish, but an experience which I hope will be inplanted in your hearts and minds, and will accompany you all the days of your life.

History of the Jews in Austria


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Chapter 13: Jewish

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THERE is a revival of interest in the finest example of a Georgian Jewish its walls 250 years of Cornish Jewish history with its carefully preserved headstones, 
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Medieval Jews were extremely successful and held occupations mainly as of its Call and visit the Museum of Jewish History, the only one of its kind in Spain, 
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Jews Telling Jokes and Stories: Doc ClubBeliefnet

From classic Jewish comedy to a look into Jewish worlds rarely seen by the public, no topic in thehistory of Jews and Judaism is off limits in this comprehensive 
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It’s about how gentiles see Jews and about how Jews see themselves. It’s about a particular moment in American history when identity politics, feminism, 
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History of the Jews in Syria


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Check us out at Syrian Jews derive their origin from two groups those who inhabited Syria from early times and the Sephardim who fled to Syria after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain 1492 AD. There were large communities in Aleppo Damascus and Qamishli for centuries. In the early twentieth century a large percentage of Syrian Jews emigrated to the U.S. Central and South America and Israel. Today only a few Jews still live in Syria. The largest SyrianJewish community is located in Israel and is estimated at 80000.

Maghrebi Jews

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Maghrebi Jews in Hebrew Maghrebim or are Jews who traditionally lived in the Maghreb region of North Africa alMaghrib Arabic for the west. Established Jewish communities existed in North Africa long before the arrival of Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain. The oldest Jewish communities were present before Roman times and possibly as early as within Punic colonies of Ancient Carthage period. Maghrebi Jews largely mixed with the newly arrived Sephardic Jews from 13th century till 16th century eventually being overwhelmed by Sephardics and embracing a Sephardic Jewish identity in most cases. The mixed MaghrebiSephardic Jewish communities collapsed in the mid20th century as part of the Jewish exodus from Arab countries moving mostly to Israel and France and merging into the Israeli Jewish and French Jewish communities.

Today descendants of Maghrebi Jews in Israel largely embraced the renovated Israeli Jewish identity and in m

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Leadership as family affairNew Jersey Jewish Standard

The newlyweds from Bergen County — married just six months — are deeply passionate about serving the Jewish community and fiercely determined to make a 
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Constant Union P45 R’ Paltiel

Daily Chassidus

“TODAY’S DAY”: Sunday, December 8, 2013
Tevet 5, 5774 · 12/08/2013
“Today’s Day”
Sunday Tevet 5* 5703
Torah lessons: Chumash: Vayigash, first parsha with Rashi.
Tehillim: 29-34.
Tanya: Ch. 6. “The A-lmighty (p. 21)…”ruination of the spirit…” (p. 23).

When Mashiach comes we will realize the greatness of hoda’a (acknowledgement, or belief) and t’mimut (earnestness), everyone’s pure faith in G-d and His Torah and mitzvot. Talmud – namely, human comprehension, even on its highest level – is limited. But hoda’a, faith, is a feeling that is boundless. Mashiach will explain the magnificent achievement of t’mimut – earnest avoda flowing from the heart.

*. This day is the chassidic festival of didan natzach (“our side is victorious,” viz. Vayikra Raba 24:3) marking the issuance, in 5747 (1987), of a US Federal Court ruling which placed the legal imprimatur of the USA upon the total exclusive ownership by Agudas Chassidei Chabad of the great library and collection ofs’farim (Torah-books) and k’tavim (manuscripts) of the Chabad Rebbe’im. “The day on which ‘our side was victorious’ (didan natzach) openly, in sight of all the nations (in Federal Court) with regard to the s’farim and k’tavim of our Rebbe’im– leaders, in the library of Lubavitch.” (Note by the Rebbe of righteous memory tosicha of Tuesday, Tevet 5, 5747).
Compiled by the Lubavitcher Rebbe; Translated by Yitschak Meir Kagan   More articles…  |   RSS Listing of Newest Articles by this Author
Compiled and arranged by the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, of righteous memory, in 5703 (1943) from the talks and letters of the sixth Chabad Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, of righteous memory.

DAILY MITZVAH (Maimonides): Sunday, December 8, 2013
Today’s Mitzvah
Tevet 5, 5774 · December 8, 2013
A daily digest of Maimonides’ classic work “Sefer Hamitzvot”

Important Message Regarding This Lesson

The Daily Mitzvah schedule runs parallel to the daily study of 3 chapters of Maimonides’ 14-volume code. There are instances when the Mitzvah is repeated a few days consecutively while the exploration of the same Mitzvah continues in the in-depth track.

Positive Commandment 246
Laws of Claims

“In every case of trespass…in which one can say: ‘This is it'”—Exodus 22:8.

We are commanded to adjudicate monetary cases between litigants [according to the laws outlined in the Torah].

Full text of this Mitzvah »

Listen Online | MP3 DownloadWant even more? These mitzvot are discussed at length in today’s three-chapter Maimonides study regime

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LESSONS IN TANYA: Sunday, December 8, 2013
Tevet 5, 5774 · December 8, 2013
Today’s Tanya Lesson
Likutei Amarim, beginning of Chapter 6

In the previous chapters the Alter Rebbe discussed the divine soul; its ten faculties — three intellectual and seven emotional — and its three garments by which it expresses itself, namely, the thought, speech and action of Torah and the mitzvot.

He explained that the garments of the divine soul are actually on a higher level than the soul itself, inasmuch as Torah and G‑d are one, and that by “clothing” itself in these garments, i.e., by studying the Torah and by performing the mitzvot, the soul is united with G‑d. This is particularly true of Torah study, in which the soul both embraces and is embraced by the G‑dliness contained in Torah.

In ch. 6 the Alter Rebbe begins to discuss the animal soul. He explains that its structure exactly parallels that of the divine soul; it too has ten faculties and three garments; only, unlike the divine soul, the substance of the animal soul is kelipah, and its faculties and garments are impurity. By clothing itself in these garments the animal soul descends to an even lower state of impurity.

Concerning the concept of kelipah, we have noted in ch. 1 that al- though all existence was created by and receives its life from G‑dliness, yet, in order that man be able to choose between good and evil, and that he earn his reward by serving his Creator by his own effort, G‑d created forces of impurity which conceal the G‑dliness in all of creation. These forces are called kelipah (plural: kelipot), literally meaning “shells” or “peels”: Just as the shell conceals the fruit, so do the forces of kelipah conceal the G‑dliness in every created being.

There are two categories in kelipot: kelipat nogah (lit. “a kelipah [inclusive] of light”), and “the three unclean kelipot.”

The first category, kelipat nogah, contains some measure of good. It is thus an intermediary level between the realms of good and evil, and whatever receives its vitality via the concealing screen of this kelipah may be utilized for either good or evil. To this category belong all permitted physical objects; they may be used for a mitzvah and ascend thereby to the realm of holiness, or they may be used sinfully, G‑d forbid, and thereby be further degraded.

The second category — consisting of the “three impure kelipot” — is wholly evil. Whatever receives its vitality via the concealment of this type of kelipah cannot be transformed into holiness, nor, in some cases, may it even be used in the service of holiness. To this category belong all forbidden physical objects; whether forbidden only for consumption, in which case they cannot be transformed into holiness but they may serve it, or whether forbidden for any form of benefit, in which case they cannot even serve any holy purpose.

והנה זה לעומת זה עשה אלקים

1“The Almighty has created one thing opposite the other.”

Everything in the realm of holiness has its counterpart in kelipah. In our context, the animal soul, with its faculties and garments, is the counterpart (in kelipah) of the divine soul, with its faculties and garments.

כי, כמו שנפש האלקית כלולה מעשר ספירות קדושות ומתלבשת בשלשה לבושים קדושים

Just as the divine soul consists of ten holy [faculties, which correspond to the Ten Supernal] Sefirot, and is clothed in three holy garments, i.e., the thought, speech and action of Torah and the mitzvot,

כך הנפש דסטרא אחרא מקליפות נוגה המלובשת בדם האדם

so, too, the soul of sitra achra (defined further in this chapter) derived fromkelipat nogah, which is clothed in man’s blood — as explained in ch. 1, the animal soul is clothed in the blood, and thereby animates the body — this soul too

כלולה מעשר כתרין דמסאבותא

consists of ten2 “crowns of impurity,” i.e., the faculties of kelipah, called “crowns” in kabbalistic terminology.

שהן שבע מדות רעות

These ten faculties are: seven evil middot (seven emotional traits),

e.g., lust, the equivalent in kelipah of the middah of Chesed (“kindness”); anger, which expresses the middah of Gevurah (“severity”); boastfulness, the equivalent ofTiferet (“beauty”); and so forth,

הבאות מארבעה יסודות רעים הנזכרים לעיל

which stem from the four evil elements mentioned above (in ch. 1),

Spiritual entities have their “elements” as physical objects do; in this case evil elements, since this is a soul of kelipah.

ושכל המולידן הנחלק לשלש, שהן חכמה בינה ודעת, מקור המדות

and the intellect (seichel) which gives birth to these [seven evil middot],which is subdivided into three, viz., Chochmah, Binah and Daat, the source of the middot.

כי המדות הן לפי ערך השכל

The intellectual faculties are described as the source of the evil middot for the middotare commensurate with the quality of one’s intellect.

כי הקטן חושק ואוהב דברים קטנים פחותי הערך, לפי ששכלו קטן וקצר להשיג דברים יקרים יותר מהם

A child desires and loves (i.e., he expresses his middah of Chesed towards) petty things of little value, for his intellect is too immature and deficient to appreciate more valuable things.

וכן מתכעס ומתקצף מדברים קטנים, וכן בהתפארות ושאר מדות

Similarly with regard to the middah of Gevurah: he is angered and vexed by trivial things, and likewise with regard to boastfulness (which expresses themiddah of Tiferet), and other middot.

This correlation between middot and intellect indicates that the intellect affects the nature and expression of middot, and for this reason, the three intellectual faculties are said to be the source of the seven middot.3

ועשר בחינות אלו הטמאות, כשאדם מחשב בהן או מדבר או עושה

Now these ten unclean categories, when a person thinks [thoughts originating from] them (e.g., when he thinks of ways of obtaining something he desires), or speaks words originating from them or does an act which serves or expresses them,

הרי מחשבתו שבמוחו ודבורו שבפיו וכח המעשה שבידיו ושאר איבריו, נקראים לבושי מסאבו לעשר בחינות אלו הטמאות

then the thought in his brain, the words in his mouth and the power of action in his hands and other organs, are called “impure garments” for these ten unclean categories,

שמתלבשות בהן בשעת מעשה או דבור או מחשבה

which clothe themselves in these garments, during the act, speech or thought.

But what sort of thoughts, words and action are the “garments” of the animal soul? Earlier, in ch. 4, we learned that the divine soul has specific thoughts, etc., in which it clothes itself, namely, thought, speech and action in matters of Torah and the mitzvot.Are we then to understand that the animal soul, too, has specific garments — sinful thoughts, words or actions, perhaps?

Not so, states the Alter Rebbe presently. All thoughts, words and acts that are not directed toward G‑d and the service of G‑d, even though they are not actually sinful, are garments of the kelipah, and hence, of the animal soul.

In his words:

והן הם כל המעשים אשר נעשים תחת השמש

These garments of the animal soul comprise all the deeds that are done under the sun (i.e., all mundane actions),

אשר הכל הבל ורעות רוח, וכמו שכתוב בזהר בשלח, שהן תבירו דרוחא כו׳

which are all4 “vanity and an affliction of the spirit,” as the Zohar5(Parshat Beshallach) interprets this: “a ruination of the spirit [of holiness].”

1. Kohelet 7:14. See Zohar III, 47b.
2. Ibid. 41a; 70a.
3. Comparison of the Alter Rebbe’s description here of the faculties of the animal soul, with his description — in ch. 3 — of the divine soul, yields several significant differences. In ch. 3 the seichel faculties are given first; here middot precedeseichel. In both cases the seichel is said to be the source of middot; yet, whereas in ch. 3 this is explained to mean that seichel “gives birth” to middot, here it is stated only that middot are “commensurate” with the quality of seichel.

These variations arise from the fundamental difference between the nature of the divine soul and of the animal soul. The divine soul is essentially intellective (wherefore it is called Adam, which, of the various Hebrew words for “man”, means “man, the intelligent being”). Its middot actually arise out of the seichel; i.e., its emotions of love and fear of G‑d stem from the seichel’s contemplation of His greatness. The animal soul, on the other hand, is essentially and instinctively passionate. It inclines naturally towards physical pleasures, and need not ponder their desirability in order to desire them. Here, the seichel serves merely to steer and channel the development of middot. Therefore the general quality of its middotreflects, and is commensurate with, the general state of its seichel.

4. Kohelet 1:14.
5. II, 59a.
The Tanya of Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, elucidated by Rabbi Yosef Wineberg    More articles…  |   RSS Listing of Newest Articles by this Author

Translated from Yiddish by Rabbi Levy Wineberg and Rabbi Sholom B. Wineberg. Edited by Uri Kaploun.
Published and copyright by Kehot Publication Society, all rights reserved.

Select Section Events, Jewish Life : 24JEWISH ALERTS large selection in each section

CONCERT – Mordechai Ben David (MBD) – part 2


CONCERT – Mordechai Ben David (MBD) – part 1

The Hills Are Alive, Not Dead, With NBC’s Live ‘Sound of MusicTablet Magazine

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Select Section Events, Jewish Life, Jüdisches Leben language german : 24JEWISH ALERTS large selection in each section

Jüdisches Leben in Hessen


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Redaktion: Ulrike Filgers & Philipp Sanke. Ein Film der Landeszentrale für politische Bildung Nordrhein-Westfalen (c) 2005

Reinheit: Das Gebot des Schweigens brechen (Purity Tehora טהורה)


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Der Film wurde zur Aufklärung und dem Abbau antisemitischer Vorurteile hochgeladen,

Praktizierende juedische Familien befolgen die Tehora, ein uraltes Regelwerk, das die Vorschriften für die “Reinheit” der Frau genauestens festlegt. Es verbietet der Frau bis zu zwei Wochen nach Ende der Menstruation jeden erotisch-sexuellen Kontakt. Um den Verkehr wieder aufnehmen zu duerfen, muss sich die Frau der Mikwe unterziehen, das ist der Begriff für das rituelle Tauchbad zur Einhaltung des Reinheitsgesetzes und gleichzeitig für den Raum, in dem es vollzogen wird. Dabei wird die Frau von einer anderen Frau auf ihre Reinheit hin kontrolliert.

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Natalie, eine junge Frau mit zwei Kindern, ist frisch geschieden. Während sie in ihrer leeren Wohnung auf und ab geht, erinnert sie sich an ihre Hoffnungen und Erwartungen vor der Ehe. Ihre ganz der orthodoxen Tradition verpflichtete Mutter weiht sie kurz vor der Verheiratung in das entsprechende Ritual ein. Natalie kann nicht umhin, Zweifel und Protest zu äussern, weil sie vieles an diesen Traditionen als veraltet und sogar absurd empfindet.

Das sieht Shira, Mutter von fünf Kindern, anders. Sie und ihr Mann, ein Offizier, führen ein glückliches Eheleben. Sie sprechen auch frei miteinander ueber die religioesen Verbote, denen ihr Intimleben unterworfen ist, und mit denen sie sich abgefunden haben. Allerdings sind diese Gespräche natürlich nichts für die Ohren ihrer Kinder.

Der Film erhielt den Spezialpreis in der Sektion Ausländischer Film und den Publikumspreis beim Yamagata International Documentary Film Festival 2003. Außerdem erhielt Anat Zuria den Regiepreis beim Prager One World Film Festival 2003.

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